Having discovered that the latest book I got out from the library is a large hardback book I decided to move on from my pineapple bookmark that I have been using lately to one of my Celtic ones: the most popular one with the purple edging and pointy corners. With the pineapple bookmark the pages don’t quite lie flat where it is. But as I suspected with the Celtic one they gape rather more. Similarly with my latest version of the slip stitch one. Now with pointed corners! Even my plain Celtic cross lifts the pages a little more. Now with cord and tassel. And of course my latest Celtic cross bookmark. (Not yet with added cord) operates more like the other embellished Celtic ones.Just thought it was useful to give an idea of their relative thickness! Though when in use in the middle of the book they show slightly less!

# Tag: crochet

# Celtic Knot Bookmark Pattern

There is a diagram to help with interleaving the ribbon together to make the bookmarks at the bottom. This is probably the hardest part!

***** ***** ***** ***** *****

I would suggest using #10 crochet cotton and a 1.25mm hook for starting chain, then 1.25mm or 1mm hook for working stitches or whatever size produces a firm but not impossibly tight result. I crochet fairly tightly and I think I used a 1.25 hook throughout. Using a larger hook for the starting chain can make it easier to crochet into.

***The stitches need to be worked into the loop at the back of the starting chain. This is method 4 in my tutorial on four ways to work into a chain.***

Slip stitches or Edge should be worked in a contrasting colour to main strip.

I am writing these patterns in similar way to how I wrote the Celtic Cross pattern.

A number means to work that many stitches, one into each chain. The V and A represent using multiple stitches as described below.

These are in UK terms.* [US equivalent is in brackets and italics where needed.]*

## Bookmark to have edge added

V = 5trs into one chain.* [V = 5dcs into one chain.]*

A= 5trs tog.* A= [5dcs tog.]*

Outer turn = V 1 V

Inner turn = A 1 A

### Making main ribbon

Start with at least 395 chain. (Having a few extra will allow for miscounting or missing a stitch by mistake, ** or my calculation being wrong!**)

Start by working tr into 4th ch from hook – equals first two trs. *[Start by working dc into 4th ch from hook – equals first two dcs.]*

12 (outer turn) 10 V 15 A 15 V 15 A 15 V 10

(outer turn) 15 A 15 V 15 A 15 V 15

(inner turn) 10 A 15 V 15 A 15 V 15 A 10

(inner turn) 15 V 15 A 15 V 15 A 3

### Edge

Work along both sides.

Can work 3 or 4ch or just extend thread so as not to need to cut thread when reversing direction at end of strip as these will be hidden by join.

Start at beginning of strip.

#### Instructions:

1ch, then dc into each tr, except for inner and outer turns. These as below.

Outer turn: into first 5tr work dc, dc, htr, tr, dtr, Then trtr into central stitch, then reverse into next five: dtr, tr, htr, dc, dc.

Inner turn: miss out stitch either side of central stitch. That is a dc as before and after.

#### US – Instructions:

*[1ch, then sc into each dc, except for inner and outer turns. These as below.*

*Outer turn: into first 5dc work sc, sc, hdc, dc, tr, Then dtr into central stitch, then reverse into next five: tr, dc, hdc, sc, sc.*

*Inner turn: miss out stitch either side of central stitch.That is a sc as before and after.]*

This bookmark came out approximately 7 inches by 1.5 inches when I made it. (18cm x 4cm). It is the largest as you can see in this photograph.

Although the bookmark above was the most popular, for completeness, I have continued with instruction for the bookmark with a slip stitch embellishment but included options for either having my original rounded ends or pointed ends, as these seemed popular.

## Bookmark to have slip stitches added

V = 5trs into one chain.* [V = 5dcs into one chain.]*

A= 5trs tog.* A= [5dcs tog.]*

### For pointed ends

Outer turn = (tr, tr, tr, dtr, trtr) into first ch, then quadtr into next, (trtr, dtr, tr, tr, tr) into third ch

Inner turn = worked over 3ch but working 5 sts tog as above for first and third and a quadtr in the middle.

### For rounded ends

Outer turn = V 1 V

Inner Turn = A 1 A

### Making main ribbon

Start with at least 333 chain. (Having a few extra will allow for miscounting or missing a stitch by mistake, ** or my calculation being wrong!**)

Start by working tr into 4th ch from hook – equals first two trs.

10 (outer turn) 8 V 12 A 12 V 12 A 12 V 8

(outer turn) 12 A 12 V 12 A 12 V 12

(inner turn) 8 A 12 V 12 A 12 V 12 A 8

(inner turn) 12 V 12 A 12 V 12 A 2

### Adding slip stitches

Work a slip stitch into each stitch along top of trebles (including other stitches used for turns where applicable) then 2ch or extend thread for a turn and work slip stitches into the stitch equivalents of the starting chain.

This bookmark with rounded ends came out approximately 5.5 inches by 1 inch when I made it. (14cm x 3cm). And with pointed ends was 6.25 inches by 1 inch. (16cm x 3cm)

## Interleaving the Ribbon to make the Bookmark

Using the above diagram as a guide find the turn that is around the middle of the ribbon. This is the one in the bottom left hand corner of the diagram.

Follow the green and orange coloured parts that extend from this turn and interleave them as shown.

Then fold in the green/red turn and the orange/blue turn.

I then turn it so the these turns are at the top and fold in the remaining lengths.

There is an asterisk showing where the final join is.

Join neatly so it doesn’t show outside the overlap.

Pull into shape, this may take a while, and then stiffen if you want to, although they will be fairly stiff anyway if you have made the ribbon firm enough.

# Celtic Cross – definitive version

Celtic knots and plaitwork are always drawn with an edge so that you can see clearly how the ribbons cross over each other and I thought that this did not show clearly enough on my original cross. which is why I started experimenting with adding slip stitches. At the time I did try adding the slip stitches to the back loop only so as to give an edge but found that this made the strip so much wider. I thought of using dcs (US-scs) for the central ribbon but knew this would be more fiddly so decided against it.

I was also finding slip stitching more difficult than dcs (US-scs) at this time so I tried adding a dc edge but could see that the cross was then so much bigger. *(I did increase the number of stitches as well and could have reduced them a bit but it would still have been bigger than I wanted.)*

Recently however I decided to bite the bullet, as they say, and try making the main ribbon of the cross out of dcs (US-scs) instead of trs (US-dcs).

I knew this would make it harder to keep track of the stitches when checking to see I hadn’t made a mistake but I persisted and my first attempt turned out like this. I could see that this was much smaller than the original and was not entirely surprised as crochet is very stretchy in a sideways direction *(especially the upright of the cross)* but had noticed that adding the slip stitches removed this, as with the cross with the purple slip stitches above.

So I decided to increase the number stitches and use a bigger hook.

Now I have lots of tiny steel hooks, inherited from my mother, but only a few, still small but larger, aluminium ones and the smallest of these is a number ‘3’. My smallest aluminium hook was a 2.5mm and larger so I decided I would use the no. 3.

*(Looking at some crochet hook charts I now think that this might be a 1.9mm equivalent hook.)*

With the increased stitches and the new hook my cross turned out like this. You can see here how these two attempts compared with the original. So I decided that as with my other slip-stitched crosses it wasn’t necessary to increase the stitch numbers except for the upright and the circle and tried again.

Here are all my three attempts next to each other together with the original. The slip stitch edged cross (bottom right) does not really need stiffening and had finally given me what I was after.

The original is of course easier to make and attractive in it’s own right but I like the new one best!

So here are the three different styles.

The one on the right with the inner slip stitches is the thickest and the top central (original one) is the thinnest.

I also experimented recently with making an equal armed cross with the added slip stitches but don’t really like it. Though I am not sure why!

I have updated my pattern page with patterns for all four different types of Celtic Cross.

This has been really hard work and I have tried to double check everything but if you decided to use one of the patterns and find anything that seems wrong, or any typos, I would be really grateful if you would let me know so I can change it for others.

# Monthly Montage – April

In April I shared quite a lot of photographs.

There were a few from my garden, four from the Photo Challenge: pond, lunch, arch and nature. I also shared my recent entries for Monochrome Madness. Easter was the big event of the month and I shared my Easter never-ending card, gave away some crochet cross bookmarks I had made, in a Giveaway, and showed you a couple of photographs of the Battenburg cake I made instead of a simnel cake this year.

Last but not least, I shared my latest ideas for Celtic cross bookmarks that had grown out of my Celtic plaitwork bookmarks, a pattern for a Celtic placemat to match my Celtic coasters and a neat pack-away string bag that I made from someone else’s pattern.

All things Celtic is very much my obsession of the moment.

# What about a Celtic Coaster style Placemat?

*This does include a universal pattern at the bottom as long as you don’t mind a bit of Maths!*

Having had a few people interested in the possibility of a placemat in similar style to my Celtic Coaster, being the person I am, I wasn’t able to stop considering it.

My first thought was that it would be a lot of work and very fiddly. However……….

Imagining a placemat made in a similar way to the coaster as being made of similar width strips. I wondered how many that would need to be and in the end decided that about sixteen would equal a foot. *(Not sure I am right here but it was a good place to start.)*

Now the number of separate strips needed for a piece of Celtic plaitwork depends on the whether, on counting the number of bumps on each side (including the corners), the two numbers have a common factor.

No common factor: one piece (as in my odd numbered Celtic bookmarks.)

If there is a common factor that determines how many separate strips there are.

For a square, both sides are the same so you need that number of strips. Hence the style of my coasters.

I tend to think of placemats as being rectangular so having decided on sixteen colours for one foot (30cm). I chose to draw out one that was 16 x 32 bumps.

Now to be similar to my coasters each colour must be different. Sixteen was about the number of colours I used for my spectrum blanket so I coloured each strip in similar colours and produced this. Now one of the things I wanted with my coasters was for no adjacent overlaps to be the same colour.

I think, if you look closely, you will see that this breaks this rule in a vertical strip down the centre.

Of course a square placemat would not. *(Each strip of the 16 x 32 placemat would need about 360 chains and there would be sixteen of them to weave together. That is a similar number of chains to those needed for each of my bookmarks.)*

Now one person had asked about a *matching* coaster and obviously this could not match with all those colours so I looked to see what would happen if you repeated the colours of my first (non rainbow) coaster (As represented in my drawing programme) and got this. Even more matching adjacent overlaps.

Even if it was square. Some people might like the patterns it gives rise to but it wasn’t really what I wanted.

So I decided to work out how to make a bigger version of my coaster with the same shape strips but just wider.

*As it was just a trial effort, I used some of my acrylic yarn that I had no specific plans for, as the cotton yarn is more expensive and I wasn’t sure I had enough anyway. Acrylic is much stretchier though and so needs more TLC to get it into shape. However I hope it will give you the general idea of what is possible.*

For symmetry I decided to just make the strips three times wider and see how large it ended up. This would mean nine trebles (US-dcs) for each cross-over and over one hundred chains for each strip.

The thing that surprised me was to find that when adding further rows it takes two added rows to equal the width of one row on its own. So I ended up with five rows and not three! (And 114 starting chains see formula below.) Since each strip is approximately the same size you should need something less than 25g of each colour. As the whole thing weighed just under 85g. More of course if it was cotton. I used a 4.5mm hook for the starting chain and then a 4mm hook for the stitches. I tend to crochet quite tightly.

Here it is with a plate.

Although I was doing all this primarily for other people it has proved quite useful, as one of my first thoughts was to use plaitwork to make a cushion cover and now I have the tools to plan such a cover – watch this space!

## Some Maths!

For a square coaster, placemat etc.

If N is the number of bumps down the side (including the corners), N is also the number of strips and so also the number of colours needed if each strip is a different colour.

*As an aside: I think that N is best if it is even, as if it is odd you get a square shape in the middle which I think stands out too much.*

* For an even number the first half of the shapes are the same as the second half and they blend together more. However the formula works for all values of N.*

**In all the following (US readers read ‘double crochet’ where I say ‘treble’)**

### Then for each strip if only one row wide:

The number of chains to start = 12(N-1) + 6. This includes the two extra chain needed for the first treble equivalent.

### For thicker strips:

If m is the number of rows. *I think m works best if it is odd from the point of view of symmetry. *(If you chose an even numbered m you will have to adjust for any halves you get. I suggest rounding down as crochet is stretchy.)

The number of chains to start = 12[1 +(m-1)/2](N-1) + 6. This includes the two extra chain needed for the first treble equivalent.

**Hope you remember your BODMAS!**

I have even come up with a formula pattern for any size you might want to make.

### For strips only one row wide:

Work the following, using values of ‘t’ from 1 to N.

*(Following on from my remark about an even N, when N is even you can just make two each of the first N/2 shapes, which is what I did for the coaster.)*

Treble into 4th chain from hook, 5tr into one chain,

Then one treble into each chain for 6(t-1) chains. *(Yes this gives zero for the first ‘t’),* 5trs into one chain.

Then one treble into each chain for 6(n-t) chains. 5trs into one chain.

Then one treble into each chain for 6(t-1) chains. 5trs into one chain.

Then one treble into each chain for 6(n-t)-2 chains. *(This corrects for the first two trebles made at the beginning which will give a join that is underneath.)*

## A more general formula that will also work for thicker strips:

If N is the number of strips (colours) and m is the number of rows.

### The first rows come from:-

Work the following, using values of ‘t’ from 1 to N-1. Then repeat t=1.

Treble into 4th chain from hook, Then one treble into each chain for [(m-1)/2] chains, 5tr into one chain,

Then one treble into each chain for 6(m+1)(t-1)/2 chains. *(Yes this gives zero for the first ‘t’),* 5trs into one chain.

Then one treble into each chain for 6(m+1)(n-t)/2 chains. 5trs into one chain.

Then one treble into each chain for 6(m+1)(t-1)/2 chains. 5trs into one chain.

Then one stitch into each chain for (6(m+1)(n-t)-(m+3))/2 chains. *(This corrects for the extra trebles made at the beginning which will give a join that is underneath. If when you put the plait together the join is not underneath then you have the strip the wrong way up. I always presume that the right side is the front of the first row.)*

For the rows after that work one tr into each tr except for the turns.* (Remember to start with 3ch, miss the first stitch, and work the last tr into the top of the 3ch on the previous row.)*

For 180deg turns, on the second row I worked into the 10 stitches of the turn as follows – (tr, tr, 2tr, 2tr, 2tr, 2tr, 2tr, 2tr, tr, tr) (16)

On the third row I worked into the central sixteen stitches of the above as follows – (tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, 2tr, tr, 2tr, 2tr, tr, 2tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr). (22)

Hopefully you can see a pattern here. I felt it was similar to working a circle, (or see below.)

For 90deg turns I simply worked 5trs into the central treble of the five of the previous row and one treble into all the others.

#### Pattern for 180deg turns continued

How the stitches increased for the fourth and fifth rows.

Over 22 stitches: (tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, 2tr, 2tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, tr.) (28)

Over 28 stitches: (tr, tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, 2tr, tr, tr, tr, tr, tr.) (34)

Caveat: Although I have checked and double checked my figures and formulae, I do make mistakes, and if anyone thinks they have found one, I am always grateful to be told so I can investigate.

# Giveaway Winners

You may remember that I offered these three crosses as a Giveaway. Well sixteen people entered and I did the choosing today.

I know a lot of people use some sort of electronic chooser but I don’t quite trust things like that and like to do it the old fashioned way. However having put all the names on a list I did decide that it was easier to write numbers rather than names on slips of card. And the numbers I drew out showed that the winners were……….

Now 16 belonged to Patricia Lang and I am not sure if she wanted one but I had included her at the end just in case. I have sent her an email but not had a reply, so, rather than delay an announcement, I decided to draw another card and I will make Patricia one if she had meant to enter. So now the list is:-

Carol D

Smfsprout

and

Ann Slay

I have sent each of you an email to request your postal address.

Here are the crosses with cords and tassels.

# A neat Bag!

Neat in both the colloquial and literal meanings of that word.

Not my pattern. You can find that HERE. *(I ran out of the dark blue cotton so used the turquoise to finish up.)* It weighs about 70g including flower and button so could be made with a 100g ball.

Here is the bag laid out. What is the little touch of yellow? You will see in a moment!

The base is two thicknesses and creates a pocket for the bag.

Here it is emerging from the pocket. Tuck it all in and you get – *(I rescued the button from a birthday card!)*

And a view from above. Just right to pop in your pocket in case you need a bag!

# Easter Giveaway

Following on from my making lots of Celtic crosses I have decided to offer three of them as a Giveaway. One each to three people.

This is open to anyone anywhere.

All you have to do is comment at the bottom of this post saying which of the three you would prefer.

I think that all would be suitable as bookmarks though the plain red cross is the thinnest.

If you would like me to add a cord and tassel as I have done to this one that I made for myself just say so in your comment.

The Giveaway is open till the Second Sunday of Easter (23rd April) when I will choose the winners.

# Celtic Cross revisited

Having made variations of the Celtic plaitwork bookmarks I decided to revisit my pattern for a Celtic Cross and see if I could do the same.

I notice that in my original pattern I used my 1.25mm hook. This time I have also been using a 1mm hook and later tried what I believed to be one that was slightly smaller again, though not by much.

The first thing I did was to add slip stitches to the edges. Like with the bookmarks this does make the cross rather thick, maybe even thicker. I made the one with the purple stitches first and thought that it would maybe be better if the upright was longer so I increased the number of stitches in that part and made the one with the red.

Then of course I had to try one with a coloured edge.

This time I pretty much doubled the stitches for each section and came up with this. Although the cross is about the same height as the bookmark one. It feels too large to be used as a bookmark and I think I will hang it up on a wall somewhere in the house.

I decided to try using #20 thread instead of #10 but I made a mistake and used the #10 red for the edging *(which is a shame as I have lots of #20 red!) *This would be useable as a bookmark or for a wall and in fact using the thicker cotton for the edge made it firmer. I am not sure what size hook I used as it was one of the ones I inherited from my mother. In those days each hook maker seems to have had their own system of numbering and I couldn’t work out what would be the metric equivalent.

I then tried making one of the original plain ones, still in what I thought was #20 cotton, so it came out smaller and a little firmer than the original. *I actually think that the smaller size hook is an improvement. I was previously using the smaller of the size hooks recommended on the label.*

I have stiffened all the crosses with spray starch.

The original does seem to be the best for a bookmark.

I also wanted to examine the pattern more closely and see if I was choosing the right numbers of stitches so I worked a trefoil knot.This seemed to fit together just right!

I then went on to consider where I was putting the join, as although it should have come behind the circle it seemed to have a tendency to slip towards the next over part and so become visible. I am therefore adjusting my original pattern slightly to improve it.

Using my slightly adjusted pattern and some multi-coloured thread I made another cross.

I am not sure which I like best but I unfortunately I think the plain ones work best as bookmarks.

# Monthly Montage – March

I showed you a lot of photographs this month. Including two Monthly Montages which I had forgotten!

There were two ‘Garden Updates’ showing how the Spring flowers were coming on apace, especially the primroses and daffodils.

I also managed to fit in a couple of entries to the ‘Photo Challenge’. Historical and Spiral.On the knitting and crochet side: I continued to expand my fair isle skills and practised knitting with frequent twists, like my mother used to do, in both circular and flat knitting.

I finally put together a wall hanging using the seahorses I had made from Wild Daffodil’s pattern and experiment myself with patterns for Celtic plaitwork bookmarks. The purple edged one seemed to be the favourite style.